Finn’s Graduation

Finn Marsland is graduating as a Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Canberra’s graduation ceremony in October 2019 (link).

The title of Finn’s thesis is Macro-kinematic performance analysis in cross-country skiing competition using micro-sensors. I am delighted that Finn has completed this remarkable thesis. From the outset, I saw his work as a great example of praxis in his combination of practice as a coach and a profound theoretical understanding of emerging micro-sensors developed with Colin Mackintosh at the Australian Institute of Sport. Dale Chapman was unable to attend the meeting too but he became a key member of Finn’s support team and who brought enormous knowledge of winter sports to the research team.

Finn’s research “lays the ground-work for future research and practical applications, which could include daily training monitoring, course profiling, evaluation of sub-technique efficiency, and similar algorithm development for the Freestyle technique”.

I met Finn in 2009 when I started my tenure at the University of Canberra. Our meeting was with Gordon Waddington and Judith Anson in the Physiology Canteen at the Australian Institute of Sport. It was a very important meeting that combined Gordon and Judith, champions of Finn’s work and Finn in the applied context of the Institute. Colin Mackintosh, pivotal in Finn’s use of micro-sensors, was unable to be at the meeting but he and Finn had met previously to prepare for the meeting.

Thereafter, Finn became one of Sport’s first PhD students. For me, it was an opportunity to explore Finn’s praxis ideas as a coach researcher. At that time he was Cross Country Skiing Program Director and Coach of Ski and Snowboard Australia.

Finn’s thesis contains four peer reviewed, published papers and one yet-to-be published papers.

The abstract of Finn’s thesis is:

Performance analysis in cross-country skiing is constrained by the variability of environmental conditions and terrain, and complicated by frequent changing between sub- techniques during competition. Snow conditions and skiing speed change constantly from day to day and often during the day, and competition courses vary in the length, gradient and distribution of hills from venue to venue. The aim of this body of work was to develop a new performance analysis method, using a single micro-sensor, to continuously detect skiing sub- techniques and quantify the associated kinematic properties that describe a skier’s performance during training and competition. Of particular interest was the relative use of each sub-technique, together with velocity, cycle rate and cycle length characteristics collectively defined as cross-country skiing macro-kinematics. Over five studies this thesis explores proof of concept through detection of different sub-techniques, develops an algorithm for the quantification of macro-kinematic parameters during training, demonstrates the use of a refined algorithm to investigate performance demands and macro-kinematic variability over an entire competition, compares macro-kinematics between different types of event, and finally examines the implication for coaches arising from analysis throughout rounds of a sprint event.

The first study (Chapter 3) (link) in this research showed how the cycles of sub-techniques of both classical and freestyle technique could be identified using a single micro-sensor unit, containing an accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors, mounted on the upper back. Data was collected from eight skiers (six male and two female), of which four were World Cup medallists, skiing at moderate velocity. Distinct movement patterns for four freestyle and three classical cyclical sub-techniques were clearly identified, while at the same time individual characteristics could be observed.

The second study (Chapter 4) (link) quantified macro-kinematics collected continuously from seven skiers (four female and three male) during an on-snow training session in the classical technique. Algorithms were developed to identify double poling (DP), diagonal striding (DS), kick-double poling (KDP), tucking (Tuck), and turning (Turn) sub-techniques, and technique duration, cycle rates (CR), and cycle counts were compared to video-derived data to assess detection accuracy. There was good reliability between micro-sensor and video calculated cycle rates for DP, DS, and KDP, while mean time spent performing each sub-technique was under-reported. Incorrect Turn detection was a major factor in technique cycle misclassification.

The third study (Chapter 5) (link) used an algorithm with improved Turn detection to measure macro-kinematics of eight male skiers continuously during a 10 km classical Distance competition. Accuracy of sub-technique classification was further enhanced using manual reclassification. DP was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 ± 5% of total distance), followed by DS (16 ± 4%) and KDP (5 ± 4%), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 ± 4% of the course. Large within-athlete variances in cycle length (CL) and CR occurred, particularly for DS (CV% = 25 ± 2% and CV% = 15 ± 2%, respectively). For all sub-techniques the mean CR on both laps and for the slower and faster skiers were similar. Overall velocity and mean DP-CL were significantly higher on Lap 1, with no significant change in KDP-CL or DS-CL between laps. Distinct individual velocity thresholds for transitions between sub-techniques were observed.

In the fourth study (Chapter 6) (link) macro-kinematics were compared between six female skiers competing in Sprint and Distance competitions in similar conditions on consecutive days, over a 1.0 km section of track using terrain common to both competitions to eliminate the influence of course topography. Mean race velocity, cyclical sub-technique velocities, and CR were higher during the Sprint race, while Tuck and Turn velocities were similar. Velocities with KDP and DS were higher in the Sprint (KDP +12%, DS +23%) due to faster CR (KDP +8%, DS +11%) and longer CL (KDP +5%, DS +10%), while the DP velocity was higher (+8%) with faster CR (+16%) despite a shorter CL (-9%). During the Sprint the percentage of total distance covered using DP was greater (+15%), with less use of Tuck (-19%). Across all events and rounds, DP was the most used sub-technique in terms of distance, followed by Tuck, DS, Turn and KDP. KDP was employed relatively little, and during the Sprint by only half the participants.

The final case study (Chapter 7) focused on the insight coaches could gain from examining variations in individual macro-kinematics for six female skiers across three rounds of a classic Sprint competition. Individual macro-kinematic variations were influenced by personal strengths and preferences, pacing strategies, and by interactions with other skiers in the head- to-head rounds. Potential coaching implications include using a range of CR and CL during training, modifying these parameters during training to work on weaknesses, and altering macro-kinematic race strategies depending on the course terrain, event round and on other skiers’ tactics.

In conclusion this thesis outlines the development of a new cross-country skiing analysis method that uses a single micro-sensor and a unique algorithm to effectively measure macro- kinematic parameters continuously during training and competition. This tool could be used by researchers, coaches and athletes to better understand training and competition demands and enhance performance. This research lays the ground-work for future research and practical applications, which could include daily training monitoring, course profiling, evaluation of sub-technique efficiency, and similar algorithm development for the Freestyle technique.

I am looking forward to doffing my cap to Finn in October when he officially becomes Dr Finn Marsland after a decade of seminal research. His upgrade seminar was in 2012 (link).

Photo Credits

Finn Marsland (ResearchGate)

Images from Finn’s Thesis Chapters3, 5 and 7) (CC BY 4.0)

Finn Marsland (Clyde Street, CC BY 4.0)

Ten years on, thinking about desire paths

This month, I will have been away from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) for a decade.

The years seem to have raced by. My decade anniversary coincides with another AIS re-organisation.

I have tried to stay connected with my colleagues at the AIS but have stopped visiting the Bruce campus. Earlier this year (July), I wrote in response to Wayne Goldsmith’s Facebook post about the AIS.

My decade of absence, Wayne’s first line (“It’s breaking my heart’) and a visit to Sport Ireland for their High Performance Knowledge Exchange Conference have sent me off thinking about the place of the AIS in national and international sport.

There has been a consultation process in 2017 in Australia for a National Sport Plan that will be a long-term strategy for the whole of sport that will have four key pillars: participation, performance, prevention through physical activity, and integrity.

The Intergenerational Review of Australian Sport (2017) proposes a vision with four sub-components, and seven game-changers for the Australian sport community over the next twenty years.

My rewording of the vision uses strike through text:

For Australia to be the most an active sporting nation, known for its celebration of playinclusivity, integrity, thriving sports organisations, continued exceptional international success competitiveness in international competitions sport events, and a world-leading vibrant sports industry. (My emphases)

I am perplexed that we are aspiring to improve “our Summer Olympic performance from 10th in Rio to a top 5 place by 2036”. I had hoped that a visionary document for the 21st century might have gone beyond the sportive expressionism of a nineteenth century nation-state model.

Perhaps we might talk about optimising performance (at all levels) instead.

I could not find mention of ‘climate’ in the document. (It was not identified as one of the six megatrends in Australian sport in 2012.)

My decade away from the AIS and life in a rural community since 2007 have encouraged me to think about bottom up approaches to playful activity enriched by inclusivity and integrity. This to me is the essential transformation of a system that de-emphasises international success, celebrates personal growth  and acknowledges that performance at quadrennial festivals is a very small part of a much bigger task.

This task for me is to offer opportunities for young people to engage in physical activity and create desire paths one of which might lead to high performance sport. We can do this by valuing effort, championing integrity and inclusivity, and accepting that we are not defined by medal outcomes.

I am hopeful that the National Sport Plan in 2018 will provide an organic, long-term plan for the flourishing of play, games and sport in mid-21st century Australia … replete with expressive joy.


I am using ‘desire paths’ in the way that Kate Bowles does:

is that it represents shared decision-making between separate users who don’t formally cooperate. So a desire path is both a coherent expression of collective effort, and completely unplanned — in fact, it’s the opposite of planning. Simply, each one puts her or his foot where it feels most sensible, and the result is a useful informal path that’s sensitive to gradient, destination, weather, terrain, and built through unspoken collaboration among strangers.

Photo Credits

No limits (Keith Lyons, CC BY 4.0)

The parsnip field home (Steve, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)




The Spirit of Sport

Tokyo 1964: Great Britain's Ann Packer (left) silver medallist acknowledges defeat at the hands of Australia's Betty Cuthbert (centre), winner of the 400m. Bronze medallist Judith Amooreis on the right.


Two events this week in the world of athletics have sent me off thinking about the essence of sport. By coincidence, a friend, Daniel O’Leary has been thinking about spirituality in sport too.

Daniel and I share a fascination with one of the events of the week, Usain Bolt’s 100m final at the World Athletics Championships. I watched it on TV live when I was in England. Daniel was there trackside.

The second event of the week for me was news of Betty Cuthbert‘s death.

Daniel has given me permission to share his thoughts on his experience of being present at the 100m final in London. He and I have been discussing sport for the last thirty-five years since we were first introduced by my wife Sue at St Mary’s College in Strawberry Hill.

This is what he wrote.

Gold of the Spirit

A picture of Daniel O'LearySeated near the finish we held our breath. The intense hush was shattered by a gun. Bolt blasted from the blocks. The noise was deafening from a packed stadium. It was pure spectacle. Inside ten seconds it was over. Our hero, after all, was mortal.

But in the drama of the day, was he more than that? At the bitter point of his defeat, did he not prove himself to be a golden hero of the soul? While thousands vented their gall on the new and quickly humiliated champion Justin Gatlin, we watched the warm exchange of words and hugs between victor and vanquished. There was a grace in the way Usain Bolt acknowledged his shared humanity with his conqueror, showed his respect and appreciation for another great athlete. ‘’He has done his time,’ he said later,’ he is a good person, he has worked hard, he is my friend and an excellent person’. And then there was an iconic moment, carrying traces of the Prodigal Son, when Gatlin bent his knee before Usain Bolt.

Usain Bolt and Justin Gatlin embrace

At a pinnacle of a celebration of worldwide sporting achievement it was a sad and shameful day for the furious and booing fanatics described by champion Welsh hurdler Dai Greene as ‘savage’. ‘The media and the masses have turned Justin Gatlin into a villain,’ tweeted James Ellington, former British international 100m sprint champion. It is one thing to be deeply disappointed that your hero lost; it is quite another to spit out bile on the one who ended his dream. If anyone lost in disgrace it was the ‘fans’. They clouded a happy summer’s evening that was full of beauty, blessing and delight for families into an ugly mist of personal pique. The weather changed then and many sensitive souls felt a chill. In a world riven by dark forces another golden opportunity for a brief but unique experience of universal harmony was shattered.

There is a deep and invisible power at the heart of the sporting life. Australian Herb Elliott, who took the 1500 metres gold medal in Rome (1960), wrote of the ‘spirituality’ of athletic competition. So did North American Ed Moses, another world champion (400m), when he spoke of the influence and force of sport to unite the world. And so did Nelson Mandela when he said that sport ‘can create hope and peace where there was previously only despair’. Golf hero Paul McGinley who witnessed some really demeaning behaviour at a Ryder Cup competition wrote, ‘intense competitiveness that also touches the soul is the essence of great sport.’ There is more to sport than the medals.

There is an invincible, un-extinguishable light of the spirit that lasts longer than the shining of a gold medal. We were not blessed with such an enlightenment on Saturday night, 5 August. But we do have sublime examples of it.

One such moment happened in the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. World Champion Jesse Owens was watching his dream slipping away. He had fouled his first two attempts at the long jump. His blond German competitor Ludwig ‘Lutz’ Long explained to him how he could avoid a final foul by using a simple strategy. Owens took his advice and went on to win the gold medal with a final leap of 8.06 metres. And Hitler stormed out of the stadium. Moved by the spontaneous graciousness of his closest rival, Jess Owens later said, ‘It took a lot of courage for him to befriend me in front of Hitler. You can melt down all the medals and cups I have won and they would not provide the gold- plating for the twenty-four carat friendship that I felt for Lutz Long at that moment’.


Daniel and I have not discussed Betty. Daniel was involved in athletics when Betty was running in Melbourne and Tokyo.

I was just four at the time of the Melbourne Olympics when Betty ran into history

This was Betty in 2012

Betty’s personal best times were:

  • 100 metres 11.4s
  • 200 metres 23.2s
  • 400 metres 52.01s

Her personal best for the 200 metres would have positioned her just 0.8s behind the winners of both semi-finals in London 61 years later. Her 100 metres time would have put her 0.55s behind the winner in London. Her 400 metre time would have put her in contention for a 7th place in the London final and 2.12s off the winner Phyllis Francis.

Spirit as the New Edge

Daniel and I came to Usain Bolt from different epistemological traditions. I think we share a profound humanistic commitment to the spirit of sport. Betty epitomises everything I hold dear about sport. I love the idea that an 18 year-old can arrive in Melbourne and win three gold medals.

Betty Cuthbert flying at the Melbourne 1956 Games is a feature of Chapter 15 of the book From Athens With Pride, written by Harry Gordon and launched in Sydney on 9 May 2014.

However, the picture at the top of this post is my enduring memory of Betty. I saw her race in Tokyo in 1964 on a black and white television in my home in North Wales. The commentary that day focused on Ann Packer who won the silver medal for Great Britain. But I do remember the commentator, David Coleman, making specific mention of the spirit that connected all three athletes at the end of the race.

I am not making an argument for a golden age but do want to champion a different kind of sport, at all levels.

I hope that we can stop talking about podiums and talk more about a common humanity that is expressed through athletic effort. This effort is ethically driven and focused on process rather than outcome.

Photo Credits

1964 Final (AOC Media Centre)

Daniel O’Leary (Begin with the Heart)

Justin Gatlin and Usain Bolt (Daily Star)

1956 (AOC Media Centre)