I have 142 examples of a team scoring first and losing in six European football leagues this season. The leagues are EPL, Ligue 1, Bundesliga, Serie A, Eredevisie, and the Primeira.
For teams that overcome a first goal and win, the median time to equalise is 22 minutes. The median time to win a game after going a goal behind is 46 minutes.
My ggplot of these 142 games and my geom_vline and geom_hline (in black) to indicate the medians is:
The outlier in these data is Borussia Mönchengladbach who took 81 minutes to win against Fortuna Dusseldorf in week 5 of the Bundesliga season (link).
Borussia Mönchengladbach (Gladbach, Twitter)