Ian Franks and the Centre for Sport Analysis, at the University of British Columbia.

Introduction

I am delighted to introduce Ian’s account, in his own words, of developments at the University of Brirish Columbia during his four decades there. I believe that the work Ian undertook had a profound impact of the development of sport analysis in Canada and the United Kigdom. Ian’s account is another part of the jigsaw that is our shared history of analysis. It is a companion piece to developments at Liverpool Polytechnic (link).

Ian’s work profoundly affected me. I thought his early papers in the 1980s were revelationary and helped me to develop my own practice as an analyst. Mike Hughes did a great deal to publicise Ian’s work and their meeting in the early 1980s was the start of a partnership that has endured to the present.

A 1991 paper (link) co-written with Gary Miller explored Training coaches to observe and remember. I regard this as one of the keystone papers in our development as analysts and firmly co-locates theory and practice. A 1986 paper (link) written by Ian and David Goodman titled A systematic approach to analysing sports performance, started me on my learning journey in sport analytics.

I was fortunate to visit Ian’s laboratory in 1994 at the University of British Columbia and see at first hand the work underway there. I was particularly impressed by the very practical connections between Ian and coaches. Whilst there I sat in on a seminar organised by Ken Moore to discuss his research into coaching behaviours.

Ian’s article is illustrated with photographs taken without the aid of digital cameras. In those days, photographs required a camera with film to take pictures and a great deal or organisation and planning.

The article has some emphases in bold. These emphases are mine.

Ian is a Professor Emeritus at the University of British Columbia. This post contains a comprehensive bibliography of his work.

Ian Franks

Born in Manchester, Ian attended St. Mark’s Primary School, West Gorton, where Manchester City Football Club was formed in 1894. After failing the dreaded 11 plus examination he moved to Ardwick Technical High School. However this turned out to be a good move as the School’s playing fields were on Newton Heath grounds, which was the birthplace of Manchester United in 1878. It seemed only right that he would have a career in football.

Unfortunately after several years of trying out for both of these teams he realized he was not going to earn a living playing football. Instead of continuing with this pursuit of a professional career in the football, he chos eto become a teacher and satisfy himself with playing non-league football in the Western and South Western Leagues with St. Luke’s College, Exeter. 

While at St. Luke’s, Ian also became interested in coaching and was inspired by the Football Association’s coaching certification programme. The principles of good teaching were paramount in dealing with players as well as students. Over the years Ian gained his Full FA Badge and took many courses while diligently recording all the outstanding coaching practices given by FA staff coaches. These very practical and realistic practices formed a large part of his recent book (Soccer Analytics: Successful Coaching Through Match Analysis (link)). At St. Luke’s College he trained to become a Physical Education and Maths teacher and then taught at Woodroffe School in Dorset (link) for two years before moving to Montreal. 

During his time as a teacher in Montreal he also worked on developing the Canadian Soccer Association’s coaching programme and coaching certification programme. Because of Ian’s past work with FA’s coaching scheme much of the Canadian coaching system was based upon that of the Football Association. The work of Allen Wade (who was the FA Director of Coaching at the time) had a large influence on Ian’s work in developing the coaching scheme (link).  

In 1973, Ian left teaching to complete an undergraduate degree at McGill University (link) after which time he moved to the University of Alberta (link) where, with the aid of a Killam Scholarship, he completed both his MSc and PhD in the area of Motor Learning and Control under the direction of Professor Bob Wilberg. 

Understanding how people acquire and control motor skills also has practical application to how players learn football skills. Furthermore the importance of feedback to early motor skill learners is a critical factor in acquiring skill. Although the factors of feedback and the leaning process was the focus of his work, the most important aspect of the PhD training was the ability to develop good questions both in discovery scientific research and in practical real life situations such as coaching. 

During his time working outside the laboratory he would travel the country giving soccer courses and observing what happens during soccer practices. It became increasingly obvious while observing these practices that they had little to no relevance with what was happening during the game itself. Players were not practicing anything that would improve their match performance. Did the coach observe and then remember what was occurring during the game? (My emphasis.) This question was critical in what was to follow during Ian’s next 40 years at UBC. 

Professor Bob Morford (link), the Director of UBC’s School of Physical Education and Recreation recruited Ian in 1980 to teach and research motor skill acquisition for what is now the School of Kinesiology (link), and also be Director and Coach of the Canadian Soccer Association’s(CSA) new centre for the development of the Olympic soccer team players. Funding and facilities were provided by a combined grant from UBC, CSA, CAC and Sport Canada. Essentially, it was a Centre of Excellence and many countries around the globe at that time used the concept of this centre as a model to develop what are now National Sport Centres. In the early 1980s Canada was a world leader in this regard. This Centre of Soccer Excellence was also intricately involved in the development of the CSA coaching education program.

Canadian Olympic Team 1982

Research conducted at the Centre had concluded that at all levels of expertise from novice (local) to expert (international), coaches were not able to observe and remember key events that occurred during a 90 minute football game (the question of observer reliability became a focal point for much of the earlier work at the Centre) (my emphasis). Therefore it was clear that if the Canadian Olympic Team was to improve, information was needed on the activities of each player during the match and during practice. 

In order to collect information on the players during a game, members of the non-playing squad would circle the field with clip boards and record individual and team data. This would then be taken back to the lab and entered into a data base on an Apple lle (link) computer that was also being used to run lab based experiments. One obvious solution to reduce this laborious process was to develop a programme on the Apple computer that would allow one person to enter the data directly and collect the data at pitch side. Paul Nagelkerke (link), a genius computer technician, developed such a system and then linked the data to a video tape recording simultaneously. The “QUERTY” keyboard represented the field of play while the top number row were the events. For those who are familiar with the ancient video tape system, Paul used the second audio channel on the tape (since it was only mono audio that was used) to mark a 500 millisecond time code that was readable through the parallel port of the Apple computer. This allowed the easy video access to recorded digital events. Despite the fact that reliable data were gained,  analyzed, and used as feedback for coaches and players this particular system was time consuming, laborious and demanded many recorders. In addition the Apple lle (link) computer was bulky and very difficult to transport and then set up (although we did venture to take the computer, monitor and disk drive down to Mexico for an international tournament). It therefore became necessary to “go portable”. The latest hardware from Panasonic to Osborne was modified to collect the same information. In the following years data were collected and analyzed not only on all of the Canadian Olympic team’s games but also a record was kept of every televised FIFA World Cup game from 1982 (link). We used this data to inform our research into tactical match analysis.

A 1983 computer and video interactive system
A portable match analysis system
A Panasonic suitcasw computer with printer, modem and storage. A system used with football and fencing.

In 1982 the Centre played host to the first Level Four residential soccer course, during which Ian and his colleagues began analyzing coaching behaviours and using this analysis to modify and improve these behaviours (my emphasis). It was the first time that real time computer and video analysis, developed at the centre, was used to assist in this coach education process (my emphasis). It was therefore possible to relay both digital and video images to coaches who would then organize, plan and conduct practices that would relate directly to what occurred during the match. The course lasted two weeks and the top Canadian coaches attended.

Attendees at the Level Four course

Charles Hughes (later Director of Coaching for the FA) was a guest for the entire course and he shared with all attendees his ideas on why he felt match analysis was critically important. His ideas on analysis were extremely helpful in focusing on what data should be collected. First and foremost he insisted on collecting data from key events that had occurred before making any decision on what remedial action was required by the coach. Charles asked some very basic questions that resonate today. For example: if a team has 200 team possessions and only scores 2 goals, what happens to the other 99% of possessions? How can we turn these possessions into shots on goal, shots on target and hopefully goals?; if set plays account for 30-40% of goals, why don’t coaches spend at least 30% of practice time on improving set plays?; if a large percentage of goals are scored because teams lose possession in their own third of the field why don’t teams exploit this by pressuring opponents in their own attacking third of the field? These questions and many more may seem simplistic and in some way obvious but they are very relevant today and it is only through match analysis that coaches can address these issues.

In 1983, Ian relinquished his coaching responsibilities to become a full time faculty member in the School of Kinesiology at UBC. He acquired funding from Sport Canada and the CAC to establish a Centre for Computer Sport Analysis at UBC (link). Along with a research colleague at Simon Fraser University, Professor Dave Goodman and technician Paul Nagelkerke, Ian developed real time Computer/Video systems for analyzing various sports including soccer (Canadian team), ice hockey (Canadian Olympic team and Chicago Blackhawks), field hockey (Canadian Women’s team), volleyball (US national team), Water Polo (Canadian team), Fencing, Wrestling and Coaching. The centre developed the first computer-video interactive system that could tag a match event with the time on the video tape and provide automatic editing. Analysis could be available at half time and full time. Important technical events from the game were then used as markers to edit the video of the game for analysis by players and coaches. Although these types of computer systems are now commonplace in most top level professional leagues such as the NHL, EPL and MLS, through systems like Prozone, Focus etc., 40 years ago it was a new and untested area of computer systems analysis (my emphasis).

Ian Franks and Dave Partridge using the analysis system to analyse the 1990 World Cup

Ian’s collaborations were many. For example, Mike Hughes and Ian have worked together on many research projects since they first met at a “Computers in Sport” conference at Liverpool University in the early 1980s. They have also just completed the publication of the third edition of their text Essentials of Performance Analysis (link) published by Routledge. Many important and varied research projects both practical and discovery were undertaken at the Centre. For example, here are only a few of the many topics covered at the Centre: what are the differences in the act of observation between expert and novice coaches; what are critical incidents in sport, and how can these be used them to predict match outcome; what are the response cues given off by the penalty taker that can be used reliably by the goalkeeper to anticipate in which direction the penalty shot will go?; can wireless earbuds be used for each player during practice to provide information?. However, there was some “push back” from the “old guard” of coaching. Indeed, one very high ranking and national Canadian coach described the work as “academia gone mad” and dismissed much of the work as too esoteric to be of use. Interestingly though, all of the research ideas that were pursued and introduced at the Centre are now still relevant and most technologies developed are now commonplace in the very best sports leagues and associations in the world. Sport Analytics through computer video technology is now an accepted method of providing coaches with informative feedback about team and individual performances. It improves the process of coaching and therefore improves the performance of athletes.

Training goalkeeperts to recognise a penalty taker’s cues

References

Articles

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (2007) “System approach to games and competitive playing: Reply to Lebed (2006)” European Journal of Sport Sciences, 7, 47-53.

Liebermann, D.G., Buchman, A.S. & Franks, I.M. (2006) “Enhancement of motor rehabilitation through the use of information technologies.” Clinical Biomechanics, 21, 8-20.

Hughes M. and Franks, I.M. (2005) “Analysis of passing sequences, shots and goals in soccer” Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 509-514.

Khan, M.A., Lawrence, G.P., Franks, I.M. and Buckolz, E. (2004) “The utilization of visual feedback from peripheral and central vision in the control of direction” Experimental Brain Research , 158, 241-251.

Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (2003) “Online versus offline processing of visual feedback in the production of component submovements”, Journal of Motor Behavior, 35, 285-295.

Hodges, N.J., Chua, R., and Franks, I.M. (2003) “The role of video in facilitating perception and action of a novel coordination movement.” Journal of Motor Behavior, 35, 247-260.

Franks, I.M. (2002) “Evidence-based practice and the coaching process” International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport (link).

Hodges, N.J. and Franks, I.M. (2002) “Modeling coaching practice: the role of instruction and demonstration” Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 793-811.

McGarry, T., Anderson, D.I., Wallace, S.A., Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (2002) “Sport Competition as a dynamical self-organizing system” Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 771-781.

Liebermann, D.G., McClements, J., Katz, L., Hughes, M., Bartlett, R. and Franks, I.M. (2002) “Advances in the application of information technology to sport performance”  Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 755-769.

Hodges, N.J. and Franks, I.M. (2002) “Learning as a function of coordination bias: Building upon pre-practice behaviours” Human Movement Science, 21, 231-258.

Franks, I.M., Hodges, N.J. & Moore, K. (2001) “Analysis of coaching behaviour” International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 1, 27-37.

Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (2000) “The effect of practice on component submovements is dependent on the availability of visual feedback” Journal of Motor Behavior, 32, 227-240.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (2000) “On winning the penalty shoot-out in soccer” Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 401-409

Hale, T., Hodges, N.J., Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (2000) “A comparison of static and dynamic forms of augmented feedback during the acquisition of a rapid aiming movement”, Journal of Human Movement Studies, 39, 1-13.

McGarry, T., Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (1999) “On the presence and absence of behavioural traits in sport: an example from championship squash match play” Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 1-15.

Hodges, N., McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1998) “A dynamical system’s approach to the examination of sport behaviour: Implications for tactical observation and technical instruction.” Avante, 4, 16-38.

Hale, T., and Franks, I.M. (1998) “A comparison between numeric and graphic forms of KR” Journal of Human Movement Studies, 35, 1-19.

Khan, M., Franks, I.M. and Goodman, D. (1998) “The effect of practice on the visual control of rapid aiming movements: Evidence for an interdependency between programming and feedback processes” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 425-444

More, K.G. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “Analysis and modification of verbal coaching behaviour: The usefulness of a data driven intervention strategy” Journal of Sports Sciences, 14, 523-543.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “Development, application and limitation of a Stochastic Markov Model in explaining championship squash performance” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67, 406-415.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “In search of invariant athletic behavior in competitive sport systems: An example from squash match-play” Journal of Sports Sciences, 14, 445-456.

More K.G., McGarry, T., Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “A computer-assisted analysis of verbal coaching behavior in soccer” Journal of Sport Behavior, 19, 319-337.

Nagelkerke, P. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “An optical encoder and XY oscilloscope interface for the IBM PC.” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28, 404-410.

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (1996) “Analyzing and modifying coaching behaviors by means of computer aided observation.”  The Physical Educator, 53, 8-23.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1995) “Modeling competitive squash performance from quantitative analysis” Human Performance, 2, 113-129.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1994) “A stochastic approach to predicting competition squash match play.” Journal of Sports Sciences, 12, 573-584.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (1994) “Dynamic patterns of movement of squash players of different standards in winning and losing rallies.” Ergonomics, 37, 23-29.

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (1993) “Computer-aided analysis of sport performance: An example from soccer.” The Physical Educator, 50, 208-215.

Franks, I.M. (1993) “The effects of experience on the detection and location of performance differences in a gymnastic technique.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 227-231. 

Franks, I.M. and Miller, G. (1991) “Training coaches to observe and remember.”  Journal of Sports Sciences, 9, 285-297.

Johnson, R.B. and Franks, I.M. (1991)  “Measuring the reliability of a computer-aided systematic observation instrument.”  Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 16, 45-57.

Stanley, M.L. and Franks, I.M. (1990)  “Learning to organize the frequency components of a perceptual motor skill.”  Human Movement Science, 9, 291-324.  

Hughes, M., Franks, I.M. and Nagelkerke, P. (1989) “A video-system for the quantitative motion analysis of athletes in sport.”  Journal of Human Movement Studies, 17, 217-227.

Franks, I.M., Nagelkerke, P. and Goodman, D.  (1989)  “Computer controlled video:  an inexpensive IBM based system.” Computers and Education,  13, 33-44.

Franks, I.M.  (1988) Examining the sequential ordering of simple movement patterns using the Tecmar Labmaster.” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers,  20, 298-306.

Franks, I.M., Johnson, R.B., and Sinclair, G.D.  (1988) “A computerized coaching analysis system for recording behavior in sport environments.”  The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education,  8, 23-32.

Franks, I.M. and Nagelkerke, P.  (1988) “The use of computer interactive video technology in sport analysis.”  Ergonomics,  31, 1593-1603.

Gardiner, G., Franks, I.M., and Goodman, D.  (1987)  “A microcomputer based tracking task for the examination of the spatial and temporal organization of perceptual motor skill.”  Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,  19, 361-364.

Franks, I.M., Wilson, G. and Goodman, D.  (1987)  “Analyzing a team sport with the aid of computers.” Canadian Journal of Sport Science,  12, 120-125.

Franks, I.M. and Goodman, D.  (1986)  “A systematic approach to analyzing sports performance.” Journal of Sports Science,  4, 49-59.

Franks, I.M. and Miller, G. (1986) “Eyewitness testimony in sport.” Journal of Sport Behavior, 9, 38-45.

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Paterson, G.  (1986)  “The real time analysis of sport: an overview.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences,  11, 55-57.

Rhodes, E.C.,  Mosher, R.E.,  McKenzie, D.C.,  Franks, I.M.,  Potts, J.E. and Wenger, H.A.  (1986)  “Physiological Profiles of the Canadian Olympic Soccer Team.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences,  11, 31-36.

Franks, I.M., Weicker, D. and Robertson, D.G.E.  (1985)  “The kinematics, movement phasing and timing of a skilled action in response to varying conditions of uncertainty.” Human Movement Science,  4, 91-105.

Books

Hughes, M., Franks, IM., and Danc, H. (2020). The essentials of performance analysis, (3rdEdition). London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

Franks, I.M. and Hughes, M. (2016) Soccer Analytics: Successful Coaching Through Match Analysis. Berlin: Meyer & Meyer Sport.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (eds) (2015) The Essentials of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2nd edition. London: Taylor and Francis.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (eds) (2008) The Essentials of Performance Analysis: An Introduction. London: Taylor and Francis.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (2004) Notational Analysis in Sport 2nd Edition: Systems for Better Coaching and Performance, London: Taylor and Francis.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (1997) Notational Analysis in Sport, London: E & F.N. Spon.

Franks, I.M. (1982) Youth Soccer Coaching.  Ottawa: Fitness and Amateur Sport.

Chapters in Books

Liebermann, DG., Hughes, MT., and Franks, IM., (2020). Video-Based Technologies, In (Eds.) Hughes, M., Franks, IM., and Danc, H., The essentials of performance analysis, (3rdEdition). Routledge/Taylor and Francis Publishers: London, (41-51).

Maslovat, D., and Franks, IM., (2020). The Importance of Feedback to Performance, In (Eds.) Hughes, M., Franks, IM., and Danc, H., The essentials of performance analysis, (3rdEdition). Routledge/Taylor and Francis Publishers: London, (3-11).

More, K., Cameron, E., and Franks, IM., (2020). Notational Analysis of Coaching Behaviour, In (Eds.) Hughes, M., Franks, IM., and Danc, H. (2020). The essentials of performance analysis, (3rd Edition). Routledge/Taylor and Francis Publishers: London, (281-294).

Maslovat D. and Franks, I.M. (2015) “The importance of feedback to performance” In Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (Eds.) The Essentials of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2nd edition.London: Taylor and Francis. pp.11-17.

Liebermann, D.G. and Franks, I.M. (2015) “Video-based technologies, substitution of reality and performance feedback” In Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (Eds.) The Essentials of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2nd edition London: Taylor and Francis. pp.43-53.

Franks, I.M. (2013) “Foreward”, for McGarry, T., O’Donoghue, P., Sampaio, J. (Eds) Routledge Handbook of Sports Performance Analysis, London: Routledege pp. xv-xvii.

Maslovat D., Hodges, N. J.,Chua, R., & Franks, I. M. (2010). “Researching Coordination Skills” in Davids, K. and Renshaw, I. (Eds.), A Constraints-led Approach to Motor Learning: Designing Effective Practice. London: Routledge. pp. 221-231. 

Maslovat D. and Franks, I.M. (2008) “The need for feedback” In Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (Eds.) The Essentials of Performance Analysis: An Introduction. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 1-7.

Liebermann, D.G. and Franks, I.M. (2008) “Video feedback and information technologies” In Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (Eds.) The Essentials of Performance Analysis: An Introduction. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 40-51.

Hodges N.J. and Franks, I.M. (2008) “The provision of information” In Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (Eds.) The Essentials of Performance Analysis: An Introduction. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 21-39.

Hodges, N.J. and Franks, I.M. (2004) “Instructions, demonstration and the learning process: Creating or constraining movement options” In Williams, A.M., Hodges, N.J., Scott, M.A. (Eds.). Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 145-175.

Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (2004) “The utilization of visual feedback processing in the acquisition of motor skills” In Williams, A.M., Hodges, N.J., Scott, M.A. (Eds.). Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 45-63.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (2003) “The science of match analysis” In T. Reilly and A.M. Williams (eds) Science and Soccer II. London: Rutlegde and Co., pp 265-275

Franks, I.M. (2000) “The structure of sport and the collection of relevant data”. In Computer Science in Sport. A. Baca (Ed.). Vienna: oebv&hpt. pp 226-240. 

McGarry, T, Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (1998) “Analysing championship squash match-play as a dynamical system” In A Lees, I. Maynard, M. Hughes and T. Reilly (Eds.) Science and Racket Sports II. London: E & F.N Spon. pp. 221-227.

Franks, I.M. (1997) “The use of feedback by coaches and players” In T. Reilly, J. Bangsbo & M. Hughes (eds) Science and Football III. London: E & F.N. Spon. pp. 267-278.

McGarry, T. & Franks, I.M. (1996) “Analysing championship squash match play: In search of a system description” In S. Haake (ed.) The Engineering of Sport. Rotterdam: Balkema, pp. 263-269.

Franks, I.M. and McGarry, T. (1995) “The science of match analysis” In T. Reilly (ed) Science and Soccer. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 363-375

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (1994) “Winning squash: Predicting championship performance from a priori observation.” In T. Reilly, M. Hughes and A. Lees (eds) Science and Racquet Sports. London: E. & F.N. Spon. pp. 260-265.

Partridge, D., Mosher, R.E. and Franks, I.M. (1992) “A computer assisted analysis of technical performance.” In T. Reilly, J.P. Clarys and A.B. Stibbe (eds.) Science and Football II, London: E. & F.N. Spon. 221-232.

Franks, I.M. and Maile, L.J.  (1991) “The use of video in sport-skill acquisition.”  In P.W. Dowrick (ed.)  A Practical Guide to Using Video in the Behavioral Sciences, New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 231-243.

Sinclair, G.D., Johnson, R.B. and Franks, I.M. (1990) “Monitoring coaching-teaching feedback: a computer managed, real-time feedback analysis protocol” In M. Lirette, C. Pare, J. Dessureault and M. Pieron (eds.) Physical education and coaching: present state and outlook for the future. Quebec: University of Quebec Press. (pp. 55-62).

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Nagelkerke, P.  (1989)  “A computer-video interactive system for behavioral research.”  Proceedings of the 31st International Conference of the Association for the Development of Computer Based Instructional Systems.  

Other Published Non-Refereed Contributions

Hodges, N.J. & Franks, I.M. (2001) Individual differences in coordinating ability: Implications for instruction In A. Papaionnou, M.Goudas, & Y. Theodorakis (Eds.), In the dawn of the new millennium: Proceedings of the International Society of Sport Psychology 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Vol 2 (pp. 263-265). Tessaloniki, Greece: Christodoulidi Publication. 

Hodges, N.J., & Franks, I.M. (2001) Building-upon or breaking-away from pre-practice behaviours: Implications for instruction. In J.Mester, G.King, H.Struder, E.Tsolakidis, & A. Osterburg (Eds.), Perspectives and profiles: Book of abstracts of the 6th Annual Congress of Sport Science (pp 358). Cologne, Germany: Sport und Buch Strauss.

Franks, I. M. (2001) “Evidence-based practice in coaching” In Proceedings of Coaching for Expertise, University of Victoria, B.C.

Hughes, M. and Franks, I.M. (2001) “Proceeding of PASS.COM conference“(eds)  University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff.

Franks, I.M. (2000) “100 metre sprint: Cognitive processes before the gun”, Quirks and Quarks, CBC radio (5 minute excerpt on radio science programme Sept. 16th, 2000 12pm)   

Franks, I.M. (2000) “Penalty kick research” Discovery.ca: Discovery Channel, Canada (8 minute excerpt on TV science programme June 16th, 2000, 8pm)

Franks, I.M., McGarry, T. & Hanvey, T. (1999) “From notation to training: analysis of the penalty kick” Insight, 2, 24-26.

Franks, I.M. & Hanvey, T. (1997) “Cues for goalkeepers: High-tech methods used to measure penalty shot response”, Soccer Journal, 42, No. 3. 30-33.

Franks, I.M. (1996) “Analysis of Association Football”, In T. Schum (ed) Coaching Soccer. Master Press:Indianapolis. pp 29-37.

Franks, I.M. (1996) “Analysing coaching behaviours: a review “In M. Hughes (ed) Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Notational Analysis of Sport, Antalya, Turkey.

Franks, I.M. (1996) “Set Plays II” Soccer News, January Issue, p 18.

Franks, I.M. (1995) “Lessons learned from World Cup ’94” A series of six televisions programmes (6 minutes) Rogers Cable Television: Burnaby, B.C.

Franks, I.M. (1995) “Set Plays I” Soccer News, August Issue, p 22.

Franks, I.M. (1995) “The importance of crosses in soccer” Soccer News, April Issue, p 24.

Franks, I.M. (1995) “Analysing Soccer” Soccer News, January Issue, p 20.

Franks, I.M. (1994) “How can a team’s performance be systematically analysed” Soccer News, October Issue, p 7.

Goodman, D. & Franks, I.M. (1994) “The Computer and the Hockey Coach.” Proceedings of the International Ice Hockey Coaching Symposium, Cavalese, Italy, May 1994.

McGarry, T. & Franks, I.M. (1994) “The use of a computer-assisted stochastic simulation system for the prediction of squash match play.” Proceedings of the First World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport. Liverpool, U.K. November, 1992.

Franks, I.M. (1992) “The use of computers in sport analysis: a review.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Sport and Physical Education, Wingate, Israel: Wingate Institute Press. (pp. 5-21)

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (1991) “The computer assisted analysis system that was used for the 1990 World Cup Finals.” Soccer Journal.

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (1990) “A comparative analysis of technical performance: USA and West Germany in the 1990 World Cup Finals.” Soccer Journal, Nov-Dec, 57-62.

Franks,I.M., Partridge,D., and Nagelkerke,P. (1990) “World Cup 90: A computer assisted technical analysis of team performance.” A Technical Report for the Canadian Soccer Association. 200 pages.

Franks, I.M. and Thomson, W. (1990) “Coaching Evaluation” A 30 minute instructional videotape produced by the Coaching Association of Canada. 

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M.  (1989)  “A detailed analysis of crossing opportunities from the 1986 World Cup.” Soccer Journal, May-June, 45-50.

Franks, I.M.  (1989)  “Critique but critique accurately and with the facts: a reply to Allen Wade”,  Soccer Journal, May-June, 39-41.

Franks, I.M.  (1989)  “Analysis of Crosses in the 1986 World Cup Finals”, Two 60 minute instructional videotapes produced by the Coaching Association  of Canada.

Franks, I.M.  (1988) “Analysis of Association Football.”  Soccer Journal, Sept-Oct, 35-43.

Franks, I.M., Sinclair, G., Thomson, W. and Goodman, D.  (1986) “Analysis of the coaching process.” Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport,  GY-1, 12pp 

Franks, I.M.  and Goodman, D. (1986) “Computer-assisted technical analysis of sport.” Coaching Review, May-June, 58-64.

Franks, I.M.  (1985)  “Analysis of Association Football:  An interactive coaching module.” A 60 minute computer aided instructional videotape produced by the Canadian Soccer Association.

Franks, I.M. and Goodman, D. (1984) “A Hierarchical Approach to Performance Analysis.”Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport, GY-1, 4pp,

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Miller, G. (1983) “Human Factors in Sport Systems.” Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 27th Annual Meeting, Vol.1, pp. 383-386

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Miller, G.  (1983)  “Analysis of Performance:  Qualitative or Quantitative.” Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport, GY-1, 8pp.

Franks, I.M., Wilberg, R.B. and Fishburne, G.J.  (1982-83 Edition)  “The Process of Decision Making:  An Application to Team Games.” Coaching Science Update,  pp. 12-16.

Franks, I.M.  (1982) “Quantitative Analysis of Team Games.” In L. Wankel and R. Wilberg (eds), Psychology of Sport and Motor Behavior:  Research and Practice, Edmonton:  University of Alberta Press, pp. 150-157.

Franks, I.M.  (1982) “Analysis of Goals:  1982 World Cup.” Canadian Soccer Association Producers, (45 minute, 1/2″ video tape).

Scholarly Presentations

Franks, I.M. (Oct 2003) “Less is better?” Invited presentation at ICCE, Vancouver, BC.

Franks, I.M. (Aug 2001) “Evidence-based practice in coaching” Invited presentation at Coaching for Expertise conference, University of Victoria, B.C.

Franks, I.M., Hodges, N.J. & Moore, K. (June 2001) “Analysis of Coaching Behaviour” Keynote address to PASS.COM conference, University of Wales Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales.

Franks, I.M. (Oct 1999) “Computer analysis of team sport” Invited speaker to Sport and Exercise Science Congress, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Franks, I.M. (Sept 1999) “Understanding the structure of competition data” Keynote address to Computer Science and Sport Congress, University of Vienna, Austria.

Hughes, M., and Franks, I.M. (Sept 1997) “Notational Analysis” Invited symposium at the 9th European Congress of Sports Medicine. Porto, Portugal.

McGarry, T, Khan, M.A. and Franks, I.M. (April 1997) “A dynamical analysis of championship squash match-play” Paper presented to 5th International Table Tennis Federation Sports Science Congress. Lilleshall, England.

Franks, I.M. (Sept 1996) “Analysing coaching behaviours: a review “ Keynote address to the 3rd World Conference on Notational Analysis of Sport, Antalya, Turkey.

Franks, I.M. & Hanvey, T. (Sept 1996) “From notation to training: analysis of the penalty kick situation in association football” paper presented to the 3rd World Conference on Notational Analysis of Sport, Antalya, Turkey.

McGarry, T. & Franks, I.M. (July 1996) “Analysing championship squash match play: In search of a system description” Paper presented to the Physics and Sport Conference, Sheffield University, Sheffield, England.

Franks, I.M. (June 1996) “Analysis of team performance” Keynote address to the Conference on Computer Science and Sport Performance, INSEP, Paris, France.

McGarry, T., Khan, M. & Franks, I.M. (Oct 1995) “Analysis of championship squash match-play as an open system: An ecological view” Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Vancouver, Canada.

Franks, I.M. (April 1995) “The use of feedback for coaches and players” Keynote address to the Third World Congress on Science and Football, Cardiff, Wales.

Franks, I.M. (Nov. 1994) “Notational Analysis and Coaching” Keynote Address to The Second World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

McGarry, T., and Franks, I.M. (Nov. 1994) “The search for invariance in match play profiles of squash players” Paper presented at The Second World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

More, K. and Franks, I.M. (Nov. 1994) “Analysis and modification of verbal coaching behaviour: the utility of a data driven intervention” Paper presented at The Second World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

Franks, I.M., Hughes, M. and Lyons, K. (Aug. 1994) “Notational Analysis of Sport” Symposium at the 10th Commonwealth & International Scientific Congress, Victoria, B.C., Canada.

Goodman, D. and Franks, I.M. (May 1994) “The Computer and the Hockey Coach” Invited presentation at the International Ice Hockey Coaching Symposium, Cavalee, Italy.

Franks, I.M. (Nov 1993) “Performance analysis in sport” Invited speaker at the Coaching Conference of Northern B.C., Prince George, B.C., Canada.

More, K., Franks, I.M., McGarry, T. and Partridge, D. (Oct 1993) “Computer-aided analysis of coaching intervention: A test of Intra and Inter-Observer reliability.” A paper presented at the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (July 1993) “Winning squash: Predicting performance from aprioriobservations” First World Congress of Science and Racket Sports, Runcorn, England.

Franks, I.M. (June 1993) “Coaching Analysis” Invited speaker at the Lower Mainland Coaching Conference, Vancouver, Canada.

Franks, I.M. (Nov 1992) “Analysis of coaching performance.” Keynote address to the First World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Burton, England.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (Nov 1992) “The use of a computer-assisted stochastic simulation system for the prediction of squash match play.” Paper presented at the First World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Burton, England.

Partridge, D. and Franks, I.M. (Nov 1992) “The use of computer-video interactive analysis in the sport of soccer: changing individual performance by providing quantitative and qualitative feedback.” Paper presented to the First World Congress of Notational Analysis of Sport, Burton, England.

Franks, I.M. and Partridge, D. (Oct 1992) “Can the provision of quantitative and qualitative feedback improve team performance in soccer.” Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Saskatoon.

More, K., Franks, I.M., Partridge, D. and McGarry, T. (Oct 1992) ” Measuring the effectiveness of a computer-aided coaching analysis system.” Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Saskatoon.

McGarry, T. and Franks, I.M. (Oct 1992) “The development of a computer-aided stochastic simulation system of squash.” Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Saskatoon.

Knight, P.D., Goodman, D. and Franks, I.M. (Oct 1992) “Using computer-video interactive sport analysis: a case study of a varsity hockey team.” Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Saskatoon.

Franks, I.M. (May 1992) “Technical analysis of Association Football: recent findings” Invited speaker at the International Symposium of FIFA, Vancouver, B.C.

Franks, I.M. (Jan 1992) “The problem with observation in the coaching process: a possible solution.” Invited speaker at the annual conference of the Students Association of Health Physical Education and Recreation, Vancouver, B.C.

Franks, I.M. (Jan 1992) “The use of computers in sport analysis: a review.” Keynote address to the International Conference on Computer Application in Sport and Physical Education, Wingate Institute, Israel.

Franks, I.M. (May 1991) “Computer technology and the education of soccer coaches.” Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Science and Football, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Partridge, D., Mosher, R. and Franks, I.M. (May 1991) “A detailed analysis of crossing opportunities for world cup and elite level soccer in North America.” Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Science and Football, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Partridge, D., Mosher, R. and Franks, I.M. (May 1991) “Computer-assisted analysis of technical performance: a comparison of 1990 World Cup and intercollegiate soccer. “Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Science and Football, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Franks, I.M.  (April 1990) “Computer-aided analysis of athletes and coaches.” Invited speaker at the Computer Users in Sports Science Conference. Liverpool, England.

Franks, I.M.  (June 1989)  “Computer interactive video.”  Invited speaker at the Canadian Symposium of Technology in Sport.  Calgary, Alberta.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1988)  “Performance Analysis.”  Invited Speaker at the Alberta  ProvincialCoaches Seminar.  Edmonton, Alberta.

Franks, I.M.  (Feb 1988)  “Coaching evaluation:  A computer-aided solution.”  Presentation to the Technical Council of the Coaching Association of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Franks, I.M. and Nagelkerke, P.  (Nov 1987)  “The use of computer interactive video technology in sport analysis.”  A paper presented at the International Conference on Sport, Leisure and Ergonomics.  Burton, England.

Johnson, R.B.,  Franks, I.M. and Sinclair, G.D.  (Oct 1987)  “A reliability test of the computerized coaching analysis system for recording behavior in sporting environments.” A paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology.  Banff, Alberta.

Sinclair, G.,  Johnson, R.B.  and Franks, I.M.  (April 1987)  “Monitoring coaching/teaching feedback.  A computer managed, real time feedback analysis protocol.”  A paper presented at AIESEP World Conference.

Franks, I.M.  (June 1987)  “Future directions in sports analysis.”  A paper presented to the International Conference of Health Physical Education and Recreation, Vancouver, BC

Franks, I.M.  (June 1987)  “Computer-video interactive applications to sport analysis.”  A paper presented to the International Conference of Health Physical Education and Recreation,  Vancouver, BC.

Franks, I.M.  (June 1987)  “Objective quantification of sport.”  A paper presented to the International Conference of Health Physical Education and Recreation,  Vancouver, BC.

Goodman, D.,  Franks, I.M.  and Nagelkerke,P.  (Oct 1986)  “Methodology in the Computer Analysis of Ice Hockey.” A paper presented to the Canadian Society of Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology,  Ottawa, Ontario.

Elliot, M. and Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1986)  “Computerized Analysis and Simulation of Fencing Behavior.” A paper presented to the Canadian Society of Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology,  Ottawa, Ontario.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1986)  “Analysis of athletic performance.”  Invited speaker to the National Coaches Seminar,  Coaching Association of Canada,  Monte Ste Marie, Quebec.

Franks, I.M.  (July 1986)  “Computer analysis.” A paper presented to the VIII Commonwealth and International Conference on Sport, Physical Education, Dance, Recreation and Health,  Glasgow, Scotland.

Franks, I.M. and Goodman, D.  (May 1986)  “A system analytic model of sport performance.”  A paper presented to the World Congress on Education and Technology, Vancouver, BC.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1985)  “Coaching Effectiveness.” Invited speaker to the National Coaches Seminar, Coaching Association of Canada, Monte Ste. Marie, Quebec.

Franks, I.M. and Miller, G.  (July 1984)  “An Analysis of Coaching Observations.” Paper presented at the Olympic Scientific Congress, Eugene, U.S.A.

Franks, I.M. and Goodman, D.  (July 1984)  “Real Time Analysis of Sport.” Paper presented at the Olympic Scientific Congress, Eugene, U.S.A.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1984)  “Analysis of Tennis.” Invited Speaker at Coaches Workshop for Tennis Canada, Toronto,  Ontario.

Franks, I.M.  (Sept 1984)  “Hi Tech in Sport Analysis.” Invited speaker to Student Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation Conference, Vancouver, BC.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1983)  “Analysis of Performance.” Keynote Address to Ontario Coaches Seminar,  Toronto, Ontario.

Franks, I.M.  (Oct 1983) “Developing a Model of Analysis.” Invited speaker to the Canadian National Coaches Seminar, Mont Saint Marie, Quebec.

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Miller, G.  (Nov 1983)  “Human Factors in Sports Systems.” Paper presented at the Human Factors Society, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A..

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D. and Paterson, G.  (Sept 1983)  “Computer Assisted Sports Evaluation.” Paper presented at the Microcomputers in Sport Conference,  LiverpoolUniversity, England.

Rhodes, T.C., Mosher, R.E., McKenzie, D.C., Franks, I.M. and Wenger, H.A.  (Oct 1982)  “Descriptive Profiles of the Canadian Olympic Soccer Team.” Paper presented at the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Victoria, BC.

Franks, I.M. & Goodman, D.  (Oct 1982)  “A Generalized Computer System for Real Time Quantitative Analysis of Team Sports.” Paper presented at the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences,   Victoria, BC.

Franks, I.M.  (Jan 1982)  “Measuring the Effectiveness of Practice.” Invited speaker at the North American Soccer Coaches Convention,  Chicago, U.S.A.

Franks, I.M.  (June 1981)  “Coaching and the Binary Decision Tree.”  Invited symposium, “What Science can tell the coach.” Presented at the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Conference, Victoria, BC.

Photo Credits

All the photographs in this post were provided by Ian Franks.

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